[1] taken for reformation of Turkey Foreign Policy towards

1
Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Foreign Affairs: http://www.mfa.gov.tr/turkey-africa-relations.en.mfa

2
Article on Economic Relations between Turkey and African Countries by Attila G.
Kizilarslan under secretariat of The Prime Ministry for Foreign Trade of the
Republic of Turkey, Head of Department of African Countries & Regional
Organizations: http://www.tasam.org/Files/Icerik/File/economic_relations_between_turkey_and_african_countries_6ce316f3-3a36-4f09-9e22-982252428ea2.pdf

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3
Article on Turkey’s new focus on Africa: causes and challenges by Ali Bilgic
and Daniela Nascimento: https://www.ciaonet.org/attachments/27798/uploads

4
Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Foreign Affairs: http://www.mfa.gov.tr/turkiye-afrika-iliskileri.tr.mfa

5
Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Foreign Affairs: http://www.mfa.gov.tr/turkiye-afrika-iliskileri.tr.mfa

6
Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Foreign Affairs: http://www.mfa.gov.tr/turkiye-afrika-iliskileri.tr.mfa

7
Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Foreign Affairs: http://www.mfa.gov.tr/turkiye-afrika-iliskileri.tr.mfa

8
Article by Mehmet Özkan PhD Candidate at Sevilla University, Spain: http://turkishpolicy.com/dosyalar/files/MehmetOzkan-TurkeysRisingRoleinAfrica.pdf

9 http://www.newvision.co.ug/new_vision/news/1425318/turkey-africa-development-partnership-human-oriented-approach

10
Article about Turkey’s Increased Engagement in Africa: The Potential, Limits
and Future Perspective of Relations by Sava? GENÇ and O?uzhan TEK?N: http://oaji.net/articles/2016/3041-1455610178.pdf

11 http://aa.com.tr/en/africa/turkey-stands-with-africa-in-quest-for-development/578727

12
Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Foreign Affairs: http://www.mfa.gov.tr/turkey-africa-relations.en.mfa

13
Article about Turkey’s Increased Engagement in Africa: The Potential, Limits
and Future Perspective of Relations by Sava? GENÇ and O?uzhan TEK?N: http://oaji.net/articles/2016/3041-1455610178.pdf

14
Article by Mehmet Özkan PhD Candidate at Sevilla University, Spain: http://turkishpolicy.com/dosyalar/files/MehmetOzkan-TurkeysRisingRoleinAfrica.pdf

To sum up this
topic, we can say that Turkey’s engagement in Africa has been one of the major
step taken to improve relations among African countries, also is one of the
responsibilities taken for reformation of Turkey Foreign Policy towards Africa.
It’s one of the strategy Turkey is undertaking to become active in Foreign
affairs. The increases in interest towards Africa comes after being neglected
for sometimes, and it suggests that Turkey will continue the efforts it has put
in Africa, the number of embassies of Turkey to Africa and that of Africa to
Turkey has increased significantly. Turkey plans of Africa do not only reach
agreement on paper but they are implemented and seen in the progress as the
case of Somalia as Recep Tayyip Erdo?an visited it in 2011, this and so many
other NGOs present in Somalia. Trade, and related issues such as business and
investments have had sustained increase in the continents in many countries
Including Burkina Faso and Ghana. The increasing number of humanitarian aids in
Africa especially on the region of Muslim populations have been the basis of
the operations of many of the Humanitarian aid group. Africa have catch up with
a positive response towards the proportional relation and is now in a partner
level with Turkey.

As explained
earlier in the introduction, Turkey is a suitable partner for Africa and its
people and since Turkey has no incentives of colonization, and rather its
incentives is only for trade which means increases trade activities for Turkey
abroad and also increases trade activities within Africa. There are so many
advantages for the relatiosn and the disadvantages are rather small and can be
avoided by effective management and planned engagements. Opportunities for both
Turkish and African businessmen, Africa also enable Turkey to increase trade in
global scale, since turkey wants to increases it investment globally,
increasing cooperation between Africa and Turkey as bilateral agreements
benefits the country also in terms of security, high mobility of people between
country, increased business and trade on individual level.

Conclusion

African reactions
to Turkey’s initiative have so far been a mixture of mild expectation and
confusion, nevertheless, the fact that Turkey does not have a colonial
background in the continent, and has emphasized an equal partnership, optimism
about the future has spread amongst African leaders. In May 2009 for the first
time the South African Department of Trade and Industry announced a study into
the potential for a free trade deal between the SACU and Turkey, In recent
years, African business in Turkey has also made serious inroads, especially in
the finance sector. For example, the South African Standard Bank has been
active in Turkey since 1999 and bought a Turkish broker dealer in 2002.
However, the major development occurred in 2007, when Standard Bank bought a
majority stake in Turkish investment banking and brokerage firm Dundas Ünlü,
with an initial 67% shareholding. South African president Mandela was having
issues with Turkey efforts into the country due to different reasons, however,
the country’s policies toward Turkey have changed under Mandela’s successor,
Thabo Mbeki. Prime Minister Erdo?an made the first visit by a Turkish head of
government to South Africa in March 2005, and in August 2008, former South
African Deputy-President Phumzile Mlambo-Nguka was among the 50 heads of state
at the first Turkish-African Summit in Istanbul. Apparently since June 2006, a
Turkish bid for Rooivalk was viewed by South African officials with a positive
prospect, as South African Minister of Public Enterprises Alec Erwin announced
in a press conference to promote the Rooivalk that “there would be a high level
of sharing in transfer of technology with Turkey…that applies to any
program we are involved in with Turkey, not only the Rooivalk,14

African responses

Among Turkish
humanitarian aid NGOs, IHH Foundation (?nsan Hak ve Hürriyetleri ve ?nsani
Yardim Vakf?) and TIKA are the most popular, actively providing food,
clothing, hygiene items, fuel, rent, shelter, health services, and clean water
in Africa.13

o   Humanitarian Aid Organizations

o   Turkish Schools

o   Tuskon: TUSKON, the Confederation of Businessmen and
Industrialists of Turkey, for instance, is an umbrella organization for seven regional
federations and 162 business associations, with more than 30,000 businesspeople
as members in Turkey.

The Role of Turkish NGOs and civil society in Africa

There has been an increase
of direct flight from Turkey to different countries in Africa including
Tanzania, and other from West Africa, all due to the high quality development
and good relation between Turkey and Africa. Turkey has done well so far,
fulfilling all what it promised and doing it best to do better, a good quality
partnership.

Turkish Airlines
has become major international airline connecting the continent to the world
with a total number of flights to more than 50 destinations in 31 African
countries.12

Turkish Airlines

Sharing what you
have to your neighbor in order to help them prove to be a good tactic for
Turkey itself because since then it has been on the rise in all sector in the
country, economic is high and efficient, there is political stability, peace
and development too, some NGOs groups has been on the rise to help Africa in
search for development, groups such as IHH, TIKA.11

Development aid

 

Turkish responsible
authority such as that of foreign economic relation has included so many of the
African countries in their project in economic sector, they contribute a big
share of their economy. Trade has dramatically increased and the economy is
promising, unemployment has decreased, and so many job shares and employment
has been created especially to the youth.

Economic Perspective

·        
South Sudan: many
training projects have started with T?KA and other national institutions in
Turkey.10

·        
 Senegal: the Minister of Agriculture and Rural
Equipment will come to our country.

·        
 Mauritania: the Minister of Agriculture will
come to Turkey in the coming months in order to sign the Agreement on
cooperation in the area of agriculture.

·        
 Zambia: T?KA and our Ministry will give
vocational training to Zambian youth in the fields of agriculture, animal
husbandry, and fisheries.

·        
 A Conference on cotton will be organized this
year aiming to help increase cotton production in Cameroon.

·        
 Cameroon: The Minister of Agriculture and
Rural Development has been invited this year in order to implement the
agreement regarding Agricultural, Technical, Scientific and Economic
Cooperation.

·        
 Kenya: The
Kenya National Defense College delegation came to Turkey for a working visit in
April this year. As you know, its members comprise all nationalities in Africa.

Example of activities on a bilateral basis with AU member
countries

In the last decade,
aid has been one of the stronger elements in Turkey’s overall foreign policy in
general and its Africa policy in particular. It has been part of soft power
strategy. The official Turkish aid agency, the Cooperation and Development
Administration of Turkey (TIKA), currently operates in Africa through three
offices located in Addis Ababa, Khartoum and Dakar, as part of Turkey’s
development aid to Africa. World Food Programme (WFP) and the Red Crescent,
Turkey has donated 7.5 million dollars to various African countries in last 5
years, to assist them in coping with the negative effects of drought and other
natural disasters. In 2008, Turkey allocated 3.5 million dollars of
humanitarian aid through the WFP, while in 2009 it made a modest donation of
0.5 million dollars to the African Union budget. In a similar vein, in 2007
Turkey hosted for the first time a summit of the Least Developed Countries in
Istanbul, 33 out of 49 of which are located in Africa. In this summit, Turkey
committed 20 million dollars of development aid for these countries’ use.
Turkey will also be hosting the fourth conference on Least Developed Countries
in the first half of 2011.8 Humanitarian
diplomacy is one of the main components of Turkey’s approach towards.9

In terms of Humanitarian aid and politics

Turkey, under its G20
Presidency in 2015, organized events in line with the Africa’s “Agenda 2063”.
In this regard, the High Level Conference on Access to Energy in Sub-Saharan
Africa was held on 1 October 2015 for the first time under G20 framework.

Turkey’s G20 presidency

Africa’s Trade
volume with the continent in 2003 to 5.47 billion dollars, an increase of 17.5
billion dollars, and this figure has exceeded 3-fold in 2015. In the same
period, similar to our exports rose to 12.4 billion dollars from 2.13 billion
dollars, while imports have increased to 5.1 billion dollars from 3.34 billion
dollars. World markets experienced recession, depending in 2015 compared to
2014, the continent of our exports by 9.3% and overall, while our imports
14.1 there has been a decline in the share of our Africa’s total foreign trade
was recorded as 5% in 2015. Turkey, Africa attaches importance to contribute to
ensuring peace and stability operations.In this context, who still functioning
in Africa 9 UN with albeit mainly police element with modest figure 5 the
mission (MONUSCO / KDC UNAMID / Darfur, UNMISS / South Sudan, UNOC in / Côte
d’Ivoire and UNMIL / Liberian) staff There is contributing. -2 014 end, 22
African countries a total of 2,202 military personnel; Training was provided in
the Armed Forces Education and Training Authority. The training of African
military personnel in 2014 the number was 570. 249 Africans still
continue the training of military personnel. -2012 Year of official development
assistance carried Turkey 1 / 3rds of the 772 million dollars that has
established aid to African countries. Percent of Turkey’s foreign aid to
African countries was held in 2012, 31.37’s. The African Region has maintained
its position with the help of $ 783 million realized in 2013 figures. 2012 and
2013, Turkey’s official development assistance among the top 10 countries
benefited most from the first row is located in Somalia. Health Sector in
recent years has been one of the prominent areas of Turkey’s humanitarian aid.
Turkey’s nearly 20 bilateral cooperation agreements in the health sector with
African countries is available. Darf The Nyala-built 150-bed
Turkey-Sudan Research and Training Hospital, the region’s most modern and
organized was opened in February 2014 as one of the hospital. In five years,
will be operated by a common way of Turkish and Sudanese medical staff of the
hospital at the end of this period is expected to transfer to the Sudanese
authorities. Also, Somalia-Mogadishu, one of the largest hospitals with 200
beds Digf Hospital was opened in January during the visit of our President, Mr.
2015. Digf of hospitals are also expected to be operated jointly by Turkish and
Somali medical staff for five years.7

From Partnership Cooperation – Comparative Data

Increases mobility,
hostility and hence relations, there has been different high level visits from
different part of Africa including Kenya, Tanzania, Democratic Republic of
Congo, Cameroon, Nigeria, Gabon, Ghana, Ethiopia, Somalia, Ivory coast, Guinea.

High-Level Visits – Political Contacts

Turkey declared
itself as a full member of the African Union (AU). In early years of improving
Foreign policy, Turkey acted as an observer to the AU.

Turkey, the African Union and regional organizations with
relations

Which deals with
building and improving infrastructure in different regions within Africa, in
order to bring about effective development socially economically and
politically including trade, investments, and putting more efforts in cultural
aspect. And improving business operations in and out of Africa.6

Establishing the Infrastructure

May 7th,
2009 in sub-Saharan total of 12 Embassy of the continent, including Africa;
while today this number 39 is increased. In Tanzania and the Ivory Coast in
2009. In 2010, Cameroon, Ghana, Mali, Uganda, Angola and Madagascar, in 2011,
Zambia, Mozambique, Mauritania, Zimbabwe, South Sudan, Somalia and Gambia in
2012, Niger, Namibia, Burkina Faso and Gabon, Chad in 2013, Guinea, Eritrea and
Djibouti Our embassies have been opened. In 2014, the Republic of Congo,
Rwanda, Botswana and began their embassies our activities in Benin. The Embassy
opened in Ankara showed that the African policy of opening our steps taken
unrequited stay.5

Mutual Enrichment of
Diplomatic Representations

Invitations were
communicated by the AU Commission. Also the host country invited other
countries to participate in the summit as observer. “A new partnership
model for strengthening sustainable development and integration” gathered
under the theme, and the Joint Implementation Plan was adopted for the
2015-2019 period with a Notice. These documents, as well as the future is
decided to collect in Turkey Summit 2019.

Turkey-Africa Partnership Summit

Summit for
evaluation of ideas, formulation of possible solution, and executions of the
proposals. All right are reserved and documented for certainty and future
references, to ensure smooth propagation of the Summit with positive result.4

Turkey-Africa Summit

Turkey reforming it
foreign policy towards Africa has taken a turn since 2005, and the issue has
been taken seriously as far as the practice is concerned. There has been
increasing of actions in Africa, in both levels and sectors of the economy in
the country, here we will discuss the practice perspective and see in what
percentages did the policy implemented.

Practice and the formality of relation

Turkey’s increasing
involvement in Africa can be understood in terms of its political, economic,
and development aid ambitions and motivations, framed through close economic
ties with sub-Saharan countries (in the form of diplomatic activity, trade and
aid), which are not only aimed at exploiting the sub-Saharan market, but also
at establishing a Turkish presence in Africa vis-à-vis other, mainly Western,
but also Southern, donor countries. To some extent Turkey’s renewed involvement
with Africa can be seen as a consequence of the country’s domestic
transformation in the sense that it has moved away from its traditional
economic partners, but is also a result of changes in the global political
economy that require the diversification of Turkey’s trade alternatives, in
this case through development aid policies and discourses. Turkey’s response to
these shifts has been to define a multidimensional foreign policy based on the
development of economic and political relations with new partners3. There
are bounds to be challenges for the relations between Africa and Turkey since
this relation is not on time actions but rather a continuous efforts with hard
work and determination. Challenges here are for both level, social, political
cultural and economic.

Challenges

·        
To diminish the
poverty by investing in African countries through increasing the economic
activities and creating more value added in those domestic economies.2

·        
To raise the share
of Turkish construction, consultancy and engineering firms in the African
markets.

·        
To transfer technology
from Turkey to the region countries.

·        
 To make either joint investments or direct
Turkish investments with the relevant countries in Africa in order to increase
the competitive power of Turkey in certain sectors.

·        
 To open way for our small and medium sized
enterprises so that they can penetrate into the region countries.

·        
 To increase the share of Turkey in the total
trade volume of African countries up to 3% in three years (The share of Turkey
in the total trade volume of Africa which is 567 billion dollars in 2005 is
2.1%).

And the others are:

2.      Share responsibilities in solving problems related with peace
and other categories with African Union.1

1.      To teach Africa the true democracy on how to govern the
government in order to bring about development and prosperity.