Hinduism?A religion or, more
accurately, a collection of creeds with several related scriptures, that is
dominant in India and has a strong presence in other parts of South-East Asia.
The religion can trace its history back to many thousands of years ago, and it
is often called ‘the oldest religion’. It is largely polytheistic but monotheistic sects
exist too.

hiqqah?A three year
old camel’s colt.

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hisbah?The
regulation of the market place carried out by Islamic authority, namely the promotion
of fairness and good order. It comes from the Prophet Muhammad’s personal daily
inspections of Medina’s
marketplace. It is also a term referring to community morals and by extension
to the maintenance of public law and order and supervising market transactions.
The functions of the muhtasib (the person responsible for hisbah) cover duties
regarding prayers, mosque maintenance, community matters and market dealings.
With the advent of Western colonialism, hisbah came under the purview of
secular departments in many Muslim societies.

hubal?A major
pre-Islamic Arabian idol.

Hudaybiyyah?The place
outside Mecca where the
‘Pledge of the Tree’ (bay’at
al-shajarah), also known as the ‘Pledge of Pleasure’ (bay’at-ar-ridwan) was
made.

hudud?The measure
of what is and is not acceptable and the appropriate punishments for breaching
the limits.

hukum, hukm?A decree, ruling, verdict or
command. The hukum of any action determines its permissibility, banning,
recommendation or whether it has a neutral position.

huquq (pl. of
huqq)?Rights and lawful claims.

hurmatul musaharah, hurmat-i musahara?The forbidding of
marriage to family members one is married to, or has been married to.

husah?An old form
of sale which was forbidden by the Prophet
Muhammad. It involved making a kind of bet and throwing pebbles,
and the place where the pebbles ended determined how the deal ended up. For
example, a seller might charge a buyer a price determined by how far he could
throw a pebble, or a seller might say he will sell the box of produce that he
strikes with a pebble out of many possible boxes. This clearly involved risk
and was therefore deemed non-permissible.

Husayn ibn Ali?The son of Ali and Fatimah, and the
grandson of the Prophet
Muhammad, and therefore one of the ahl al-bayt (the members of the
Prophet’s household), making him a revered figure in both Shi’a and Sunni Islam.