Abstract—As usage even for naïve users. II. operating system

Abstract—As smartphone become part of life
and are used everywhere not only as a phone but also different purposes. So
that in this paper focusing on a comparative study of the mostly used
smartphone operating system such as android by Google Inc. and iOS by Apple.
This article gives the important features of the two leading smartphone
operating system. Moreover this article deals with pro and cons of these
operating system and a statistically analyze the number of users and apps
developed for these platforms.

Keywords—Android
by Google; iOS by Apple; Smartphones; Operating System;

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I.      Introduction

Operating system is a system program that work as an
intermediary between a user and the computer. Every operating system run with
the aim of: to execute user programs, troubleshoot any errors, provide easy to
use interface, and efficiently utilize computer resources.

The operating system not only provide services for users
but also provide for developer to make possible operation without having
low-level hardware control. The operating system provide uniform interfaces to
interact different types of devices such as I/O devices. The operating system
provide the facility of creating, managing and organizing of files. Modern
operating system provides graphical user interface that is easy to usage even
for naïve users.

                                                                                                                                              
II.    operating system

The operating system become advanced as advancement of
hardware, modern operating system have the capability of multithreading and
support of multicore architectures. Modern operating system for smartphones
have also the capability of supporting multithreading and support different
types of  media format which includes:
audios, videos and images, moreover these operating system support different
types of sensor like GPS, accelerometers, and also support video cameras,
touchscreen, accelerated 3D graphics.

                                                                                                                  
III.   operating system for smartphones

A.    Android Operating System

Android operating system is based on Linux kernel. Android
operating system is the leading mobile platform and it comes with a lot of
features with speed and performance. The latest version released is android
version 8.1.0 Oreo on December 5 2017 with features to improve mobile
experience. Android is an operating system for smartphones and other devices
such as smart TV. Android is especially designed for touch screen mobile
devices, but also used in smart TV and cars as Android Auto and also in smart
watches as Android Wear. It can be said that Android Operating System is
running on many hardware products as an Operating System. Due to android a
smartphone become like a personal computer having limited physical size.

Android Operating System backed an Android Market which is
formally known as Google Play, Google Play provide services of online selling
of android applications. Since December 2017 android market has 3.5 million of
android applications available to the users. Android market were initially
accepted free application later on since 2009, payable application also added
to the market.

Android Operating System is an open source software
platform that can be modified and improved by any users. That is why developers
from third-parties get benefit of it. Google opened entire source code of
android operating system, so that developer can add their extensions. Android
has some libraries and APIs that are not fully open source, and therefore it is
criticized by developer community.

The latest version of android operating system is 8.1.0
which is known as “Oreo” developed by Google and released on December 5, 2017.
Android Operating System version started from Android version 1.0 in November
2007 and then after very large number of new updates has been added to
operating system. Each updates improve performance and removed bugs in previous
version. Since December 2017, each version of android operating system comes
with a names in alphabetical orders:

TABLE
I.            
Table Styles

Table Column Head

Android OS Version

OS Code Name

Release Year

1.0

Alpha

 

1.1

Beta

 

1.5

Cupcake

 

1.6

Donut

 

2.0 to 2.1

Éclair

 

2.2 to 2.3

Froyo

 

2.3 to 2.3.7

Gingerbread

 

3.0 to 3.2.6

Honeycomb

 

4.0 to 4.0.4

Ice Cream Sandwich

 

4.1 to 4.3.1

Jelly Bean

 

4.4. to 4.4.4, 4.4w
to 4.4w.2

KitKat

 

5.0 to 5.1

Lollipop

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
a. Sample of a Table footnote. (Table footnote)

Fig. 1.   
EAndroid different version . (figure caption)

Android platform used just-in-time process (JIT) for
compiling code obtained from Java byte code, for that reason uses a virtual
machine namely Dalvik. Dalvik compiles the application each time of lunching
it.

Fig. 2.   
Android operating system architecture with Dalvik virtual machine.

From Fig. 2, Linux is just part of the android
architecture, and placed at the lowest level. Android operating system not a
Linux operating system, and most of the developers don not have access to the
lowest level of the operating system.

Android Operating System has a Linux kernel, and it has
virtual machine on it, which is called Dalvik virtual machine, and so Linux
features are not accessible to users.

The second layer of android operating system is
application framework domain, and this layer is written in Java language. This
layer is represented in blue color of Figure 2 of android architecture. Android
application developers are limited to the only upper layer of the android
architecture. But device manufacturers has access of all layers for the sake of
optimization.

After the release of android 4.4, android introduce a new
method of running application which is known as Android Runtime (ART), in ART
applications are compiles the bytecode at the time of installing the software. ART
work as a middle layer between compiled and interpreted code, it’s known as
ahead-of-time (AOT) compilation. Before ART android application were
interpreted at runtime by just-in-time (JIT) which slow down the system. After
introducing ART, android applications is compiled to native code during
installation of the application. ART takes some time during installation of the
application. In android 4.4 Dalvik was not fully replaced to ART, there was
option for user to select runtime:

Fig. 3.   
Android operating runtime change option between Dalvik and ART.

But after 4.4, in Android 5.0, the
Dalvik virtual machine is completely replaced with Android Run Time (ART).
Android Run Time technique eliminate Just-in-Time-associated processing, to
improve system performance and power usage of the smartphone battery. ART
installation may take some time but running the applications it reduces the
cost of resources and CPU utilization, so battery life of smartphone increases.
ART also improve garbage collector, application debugging and measurement of
performance. Due to ART system efficiency increase and battery usage decrease. ART
also use bytecode format as the Dalvik virtual machine for the generated code
to maintain compatibility with previous applications versions, which uses
Dalvik virtual machine. Android Run Time (ART) is cross-platform that means its
applications can be run on ARM, MIPS and MIPS64, x86064 architectures.   

B.    iOS Operating System

Mobile phone Operating System iOS (formerly known as
iPhone OS) is developed by Apple Inc, for its own hardware manufactured by
Apple. iOS was originally developed for iPhone but later on it was further
extended to other Apple devices, like iPad, iPod touch, Apple TV, Apple Watch.
Apple devices are stable as compared to other manufacturer’s devices, but also
more expansive than other.

iOS is Unix-like operating system, which contain
elements of Mac Operating System. iOS operating system provide over-the-air (OTA)
interface for updating. Apple iOS not supported Adobe application of Flash
multimedia.