CHAPTER should be done to SpEd teachers, parents and

CHAPTER 2

Review of Related Literature and Studies

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Local Literature

     Manlapaz & Joseph (2014) stressed that deaf
educators has a significant part in the development of knowledge and skills of
its learners, and they
must give quality instruction to deaf learners and with that is the
qualification and expertise of the teachers.  Student-focused pedagogy should also be
remembered as a requirement for effective learning.  Coaching and collaboration is the best
way to educate deaf students. Still other opt
that an teacher to be effective must be expert in the listening and
instructional technologies and techniques that will maximize the effect for a
child with hearing loss.  Aside from technological approaches, development
of learning researchers have found that begins with the cognitive processes of
deaf students.  That explains why auditory
and signing methods are used as foundation of successful learning experience for
deaf students.

Undalok
(2015) commented that the Special Education (SpEd) teachers play an important
role for the students of the deaf children as they are looked as primary
character in the educational process of the pupils. This cannot be successfulif
without the varied approaches on deaf education.The educational pedagogy in deaf
classes must be given a total approach by the educators,moreover the
bilingual-bicultural education for the improvement of the intellectual ability,
phonological processes.Different educational approaches for the hearing
impaired should be given emphasis by the SpEd teachers; More intensive
educational approaches /trainings should be done to SpEd teachers, parents and
caregivers; Incorporate assistive technologies in the class.

Calbay
(2012) discussed that Equal access to education is one of our basic human
rights as Filipinos. However, there were no adequate efforts to push for
quality education for the Deaf students. According to the census of National
Statistics Office (NSO) in theyear 2000, there are 123,000 Deaf Filipinos all
over the country. Many of which, live in rural areas and do not receive proper
education. On FSL issues, it is very important that the Filipino Deaf will take
our own stand regarding the language we prefer to use and the language we use
in our daily conversation.  The Lack of
closed caption or inset interpreter in television news programs and courtrooms
further disables the Filipino Deaf. We are usually unaware of the local and
national issues occurring in different areas of the country.

DEC (2011)
commented that the academic set-up for the deaf in the Philippines has to shifted
from exclusive to inclusive education.  This
is happening despite of challenges taking place in the area of special
education and the situation of deaf learners.  Without proper preparation and
facilities deaf learners are not put in the regular classes.  There are some
deaf students placed in the regular classes without sped teachers or
interpreter so to speak.  This is a serious concern that should
be looked into. Like many educational
institutions in other countries, deaf students in public schools of the
Philippines endure the use of artificial sign systems, sign supported speech
and oral methods with very little to no opportunities to express their
frustration, difficulty and dislike with such methods.  As of the moment, precious learning that
could spell the students success are missed and they lag behind their hearing
peers. 

Clemena (2008)stated
that a common concern raised by the groups is socio-psychological—the lack of
understanding of the psychology of deafness, the need for immediate linkage
with theDeaf community to provide interaction opportunities for the Deaf
children and supportfor their parents, the need for guidance and counseling
services, especially in schoolswith mainstreaming programs, and the very low
self-esteem of the Deaf.At the core of the problems in Deaf education are the
unresolved issues oflanguage and communication. The lack of research on FSL and
the culture of deafness,the lack of materials on FSL, the absence of policies
on the use of sign language inthe classroom, and the diverse levels of signing
skills of teachers and interpreters haveled to problems in the literacy skills
of Deaf students. These also explain the restrictedaccess of the Deaf to
postsecondary education and, consequently, to employment opportunities.  Another serious flaw of Deaf education is
that it has not developed a system ofconsultation with Deaf adults who could
provide valuable