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In many ways, the history of civilization is the history of chemistry. Chemistry is the study of matter and its properties. People have always sought to identify, use and change the materials in the environment. Early people discovered amazing glazes to decorate and preserve their wares. Herders, brewers and vintners used fermentation techniques to produce cheese, beer and wine. Housewives drained the lye from wood ash to make soap. Blacksmiths learned to combine copper and tin to make bronze. Crafters learned to make glass. Leatherworkers tanned hides. 
Robert Boyle investigated the actions of gases and discovered the inverse relationship between volume and pressure of a gas. He also said that “all reality and change can be described in terms of elementary particles and their motion,” and early understanding of atomic theory. In 1661, he wrote the first chemistry textbook, “The Sceptical Cymist,” which moved the study of substances away from mystical associations with alchemy and toward scientific investigations. Jacques Charles continued Boyles’ work and is known for stating the direct relationship between temperature and pressure of gases.  In 1794, Joseph Proust investigated pure chemical compounds and stated the Law of Definite Proportions. Statement that every chemical compound contains fixed and constant proportions of its constituent elements. 
Gases respond more dramatically to temperature and pressure than do the other three basic types of matter. For gases, temperature and pressure are related to volume, and this allows us to guess their behavior under certain conditions. These predictions can explain tiresome occurrences, such as the fact that an open can of soda will lose its fuzz and taste horrific.
Solids occupy a definite volume and a definite shape, and are relatively noncompressible; for example, if you apply extreme pressure to a steel plate, it will bend, but not much. Liquids have a definite volume, but no definite shape, and tend to be noncompressible. Gases, on the other hand, possess no definite shape or volume, and are compressible. 
At the molecular level, particles of solids tend to be definite in their arrangement and close in proximity, part of what makes a solid “solid,” in the everyday meaning of that term, is the fact that its constituent parts are basically immovable. Liquid molecules, too, are close but random in arrangement. Gas molecules, are random in arrangement, but are usually more widely spaced than liquid molecules. Solid particles are slow moving, and have a strong attraction to one another, whereas gas particles are fast-moving, and have little or no attraction.
Given these interesting characteristics of gases, it follows that a unique set of rules collectively known as the “gas laws” are needed to describe and predict their actions. Most of the gas laws were obtained during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries by scientists whose work is honored by the association of their names with the laws they discovered. These men included many English, French, and Italian scientists.
For fizzy drinks like soda, the active ingredient is carbon dioxide. This colorless, tasteless gas is naturally present in the atmosphere in small amounts and plays a critical part in regulating temperatures. It is one of the greenhouse gases that absorbs infrared radiation from the sun, which helps control the amount of heat that reaches the surface of the Earth. Humans, animals, and most bacteria exhale carbon dioxide, and plants absorb it and use it to build sugars in photosynthesis in a constant churn known as the carbon cycle.
The idea of carbonation isn’t new. Beer has been around nearly as long as humans have, and this process produces carbon dioxide that gives beer its foamy head. However, this process was not applied to non-brewed drinks until the 18th century. English chemist Joseph Priestley, the discoverer of oxygen, connected a bottle of water to a keg of brewing beer and noticed that some of the gas produced by the process dissolved into the water and was released when he opened the bottle. Carbon dioxide had not been identified at the time, so he called it fixed air. Priestley suggested that water fixed air did not go sour like other water and that it might have medicinal uses. 
The basic process is forcing carbon dioxide to dissolve in water. This needs two things: low temperature and pressure. Carbon dioxide dissolves much better in cold water than hot. At a temperature of about 45°F that most soda makers recommend, 2.2 pints of water can absorb about 0.1 ounces of carbon dioxide. At a typical room temperature of 60°F, that falls to just over 0.07 ounces. Pressure is the other factor. The higher the pressure of the carbon dioxide gas, the more quickly and completely it will dissolve into the water. So, to carbonate water, you chill it and then apply high-pressure carbon dioxide.
In conclusion, carbon dioxide is the main ingredient in which makes soda carbonated. The carbon dioxide under thousands of pounds of pressure makes the soda fizz and pop when you open the can. There are a few additives in certain soda’s which also, lead to carbonation but it is mainly carbon dioxide.