Introduction: a student of physics pathway, the construction and

 

Introduction:

In the
recent decades, the construction sector faced many changes. One of these
changes is improving the quality and property of constructional materials. In
the case of concrete, which is the second highly used product in the current
infrastructural sector, this aim could be achieved by using the nanoparticles
that are being used widely in the current scientific developments (Ashani 2015).

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Researches of Nano-scientists shown that the developments in the Nano
technological fields in the construction engineering area gives increased
opportunities to get the high-quality infrastructure. The construction of improved,
durable buildings by using reliable substances is the main indexes of engineers
obligations. As a student of physics pathway, the construction and the use of
Nano-particles in order to refine the performance of a concrete is of interest
and relevance.

This paper will analyse possible innovations on the structure of concrete
by applying nanotechnology aims. It will look at some environmental issues of
conventional concrete materials. It will then evaluate nanotechnology as an
assistant by using the criteria of performance, health, cost and environmental
impact. This paper will show that nanotechnology may help to overcome some
limitations and give competitive advantages despite its
drawbacks at the case of availability, survey quantity and some health diseases.

 

 

 

Section 2

  Research Questions

1)   What is the scale of using the nanoparticles in
the concrete materials?

2)   What changes could nanotechnology have in the
performance of concrete?

3)   Is the usage of nanotechnology in cement-based
materials cost effective?

4)   Do nanoparticles in concrete have harmful
effects on human health?

5)   Would an application of nanoparticles in
concrete have positive environmental effects?

6)   Would the usage of nanotechnology in
cement-based materials have negative effects?

 

 

Section 3

 Outline

1. What is the scale of using the nanoparticles in the concrete materials?

1.1. The
importance of concrete materials in the construction industry

1.2.
Production of nano materials

1.3.
Development of nano concrete

2.   What changes could nanotechnology have in the
performance of concrete?

2.1. Improvements
in strength and durability:

2.1.1. Nano silica

2.1.2. Carbon nano
tube

2.2. Application
of Polycarboxylates (Water reducer)

2.3. Shortened
time consuming

3. Is usage
of nanotechnology in cement-based materials cost effective?

3.1. Carbon nano
tube as a replacer of steel

3.2. Fewer number
of components are required

4.   Do nanoparticles in concrete has harmful
effects on human health?

4.1. Because of
their size

4.1.1. Penetrate
into the lungs and bloodstream

4.1.2. Penetrate
the human skin

4.2. The addition
of Titanium oxide (cacncer)

 

5.   Would an application of nanoparticles in
concrete have positive environmental effects?

5.1. Self-cleaning
properties

5.2. Reducing the
CO2 emissions by 25%

6.   Would the usage of nanotechnology in
cement-based materials have negative effects on rural communities?

6.1. Price and
availability

6.2. The low
literacy level

6.3. Small
production volumes and high cost

 

 

Section 4

 Annotated sources:

First Annotated source

Aggarwal, Paratibha, Rahul Pratap Singh, and
Yogesh Aggarwal. 2015. “Use of nano-silica in cement based materials—A
review.” Cogent Engineering 2.1.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23311916.2015.1078018

 

This article was printed in a peer reviewed academic journal and is aimed
specifically at researches in the area of cementitious material at the atomic
level. The lead author is a professor in Civil Engineering Department of
National institute of Technology in India; Rahul Pratap Singh
is pursuing his PhD in Civil

Engineering
Department of National Institute of Technology in India; and Yogesh Aggarwal is
working as an assistant professor in Civil Engineering Department of National
Institute of Technology in India. All authors have highly specialized
education in concrete industry. The article was published in
2015 and so the contents are current.

The research assimilates the mechanical, fresh
and durability properties of conventional cement and nano-concrete; examines the properties of each
nano material that can be used and gives the probable properties by comparing
with conventional concrete. Authors of paper also give a
review of potential gains on using nanosilica in concrete and believe that in
the near future nanotechnology will have a great impact to concrete and to
whole construction industry.

This article has a very useful section on the
microstructural analysis and will be used to support the section of my essay
dealing with the criteria of performance and durability.

 

 

 

 Second Annotated
source

Sobolev, Konstantin. 2016. “Modern
developments related to nanotechnology and nanoengineering of concrete.” Frontiers
of Structural and Civil Engineering 10.2: 131-141.

DOI 10.1007/s11709-016-0343-0

 

This source is an international peer reviewed
journal and was written by a reliable authority in the sphere. The paper
reports on modern developments related to nanotechnology of cement and
concrete. The lead author, Konstantin Sobolev is a professor in the Department
of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Winconsin-Milwaukee in
USA. Concrete
materials, Nanotechnology and Admixtures are his basic areas of research and he
has over 150 other publications. The article was published in
2016 and so the contents are current.

Konstantin gives a summary information about
application of nanotechnology in cement-based materials on the report with the
same tittle. He also provides a review of recent evolve in instrumentation and
design of advanced nano-composite concrete materials, including self-cleaning
and water resistant concrete. The limitation of this article would be the fact
that it has in turn been cited only in 7 other publications as was published
recently.

 However,
this source was very useful in supporting the introduction part of research
report with background information since its investigation details has written
in easily accessible language. The section of the article discussing about photocatalytic
concrete was helpful highlighting the environmental criteria of the
nano-composite.

 

 

 Third Annotated source

Raki, Laila, et al. 2010. “Cement and
concrete nanoscience and nanotechnology.” Materials 3.2: 918-942.

doi:10.3390/ma3020918

 

This article is from a peer reviewed academic
journal that was written by a qualified authority in the field. The lead author,
Laila Raki is a Research Officer of National Research Council in Canada. The main topic of his research is
about cement and Concrete Nanoscience and
Nanotechnology. The article was published in 2010 and so
contents are current.

This source surveys the work
by many researchers, where nanotechnology potentially offers the opportunity to
understand the behaviour of concrete. The distinction of this study is that it is more concentrated on mechanical
properties of Carbon nanotubes and Calcium Silicate Hydrate, which are one of
the nanoparticles that influence the mechanical properties as well as financial
and environmental. This paper and the previous one would be the best complement
of each other to describe the impact of nanotechnology in construction
industry. The publication of this article has been cited
by 261 authors and showing the influence of this source in the literature of
this subject.

The article has very useful section on the
improving the ecological and cost properties of concrete materials. In particular,
the content on page 933, which give information about environmental and economic
benefits will very valuable to the main body paragraphs of my report.