Introduction organisation. An organisation is like a vehicle of


Any organization without human resources
is incomplete and difficult to imagine also. Human resources is a very
important part of an organization and particularly their training and
development is an aspect which organizations have to attend for future
development. Thus, training and development of human resources is essential and
important activity for organizational development. Technological changes have
forced organizations to function with new technologies requiring newer skills.
Consequently, there is a need for frequent changes in the attitudes, skills and
knowledge content of the workforce.

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Keeping in tune with the above concept
of training and developing human resources, organizations have established
Human Resource Developments (HRDs) to look into the issue of developing
employee competencies and providing their all round growth and development. Others
have strengthened the existing personnel departments by designating senior
executives with the above role. Executive develop­ment focuses more on the executive’s
personal growth. Thus, executive development consists of all the means that
improve his/her performance.

Executive development, being a predominantly
educational process, is a continuous and life-long process. It is not like
training as a one-shot programme but an on-going continuous programme
throughout the career of an executive or manager. Executive development is
based on the assumption that there always exists a gap between what an
executive performs and what he/she can. Executive development harnesses this
untapped potential.

Training And Development

Executives are the one who runs the organisation. It is
managers who plan, organise, direct and control the resources and activities in
every organisation. An organisation is like a vehicle of which managers are
drivers. Without competent managers, other valuable resources such as men,
material, machine, money, technology and others remain of not much significance
for the organisation. Thus, managers are a vital cog in the success of any organisation.
That’s why executive  Training and Development
has become important in every organisations.

Change in organisations has become an development with rapid
changes in the total environ­ment. A manager, therefore, requires to be
imparted training to abreast of and cope with on-going changes in his / her
organisation. Otherwise, the manager becomes obsolete.

Training and
Development for executives

The manager actually participates in development programmes.
It is worth mention­ing that no single development programme can be adequate
for all managers. The reason is that each manager has a unique set of physical,
intellectual and emotional characteristics.

As such, there can be different development programmes to
uniquely suit to the needs of an executive/ manager. These development
programmes may be on-the-job or off-the-job programmes organised either by the
organisation itself or by some outside agencies.

of training and development programs

Training should be conducted in a systematic order
so as to derive expected benefits from it. The training

system involves four stages, namely:

a. Assessment of training and development programs

b. Designing the training and development programs.

c. Implementation of the training program

d. Evaluation of the training program

of Training and Development program needs

Assessment of Training  Needs

Organizational Analysis

Departmental Analysis

Job Analysis

Employee Analysis

the Training and Development Programs

Designing of Training Programs

Instructional objectives

Learning Principles

Teaching Principles

Training Principles

Content design

Impleme1ntation of the Training

Implementation of Training Programs

On-the-Job Methods

Off-the-Job Methods         

Characteristics of the Instructor
Conducting the Program

of the Training program

Evaluations of Training Programs Reactions

Learning Job Behaviour

Organization Ultimate Value

The main objectives of any programme of
executive development are to

1. Improve the performance of managers at all

2. Identify the persons in the organisation with
the required potential and prepare them for higher positions in future.

3. Ensure availability of required number of
executives / managers succession who can take over in case of contingencies as
and when these arise in future.

4. Prevent obsolescence of executives by
exposing them to the latest concepts and techniques in their respective areas
of specialisation.

5. Replace elderly executives who have risen
from the ranks by highly competent and academi­cally qualified professionals.

6. Improve the thought processes and analytical

7. Provide opportunities to executives to
fulfill their career aspirations.

8. Understand the problems of human relations
and improve human relation skills.

The principal objective of training is to make sure
the availability of a skilled and willing workforce to the organization. In
addition to that, there are four other objectives: Individual, Organizational,
Functional, and Social.

• Individual
Objectives – These objectives are helpful to employees in achieving
their personal goals, which in turn, enhances the individual contribution to
the organization.

• Organizational
Objectives – Organizational objectives assists the organization with its
primary objective by bringing individual effectiveness.

• Functional
Objectives – Functional objectives are maintaining the department’s
contribution at a level suitable to the organization’s needs.

• Social
Objectives – Social objectives ensures that the organization is
ethically and socially responsible to the needs and challenges of the society

of Personnel Management identified 22 leadership competencies that are
necessary for successful executive performance.

22 leadership competencies are referred to as the ECQs and they are grouped
into five categories, namely:

Leading Change: creativity and
innovation, external awareness, flexibility, resilience, strategic thinking and

Leading People: conflict management,
leveraging diversity, developing others, and team building;

Results Driven: accountability,
customer service, decisiveness, entrepreneurship, problem solving, and
technical credibility;

Business Acumen: financial
management, human capital management, and technology management; and

Building Coalitions: partnering,
political savvy, and influencing/negotiating.

addition, OPM identified six fundamental competencies that serve as the
foundation for the ECQs  including:

interpersonal skills;

oral communication;


written communication;

continual learning; and

public service motivation. .

Types of Training And Development For Executives

the job training

refers to new or inexperienced employees learning through observing peers or
managers performing the job and trying to imitate their behavior.

Off the job training :

Trainee is separated from the job

Take place at training agency or local
college, training centres

Study materials

Fully concentrate on learning rather
than performing

Freedom of expression

of on the Job Training


is one to one interaction considered as corrective measure for inadequate
performance. Helps in identifying weaknesses and focuses on areas which needs



focus on attitude development. Conducted for management-level employees. Mentoring
is done by someone inside the company

is one-to-one interaction. It helps in identifying weaknesses and focus on the
area that needs improvement


is an approach to management development where an individual is moved through a
schedule of designed to give him or her a breadth of exposure to the entire
operation. Job rotation is also practiced to allow qualified employees to gain
more insights into the processes of a company, and to reduce boredom and increase
job satisfaction & skill enhancement through job variation.


Advantages of “On-the –job” Methods:

Generally more cost effective

Less disruptive to the business – i.e.
employees are not away from work

Training with equipment they are
familiar with and people they know can help them

Gain direct experience to a standard
approved by the employer

On the job training is also productive,
as the employee is still working as they are learning

of Off the Job methods:

Vestibule Training:

work conditions are simulated Materials, files and equipments are used.

ranges from few days to a few weeks. Theory can be related to practice here


Other Methods

In-Basket Exercise:

known as In-tray method of training. The trainee is presented with a pack of
papers & files in a tray containing administrative problems & is asked
to take decisions on these problems & are asked to take decisions on these
within a stipulated time. The decisions taken by the trainees are compared with
one another. The trainees are provided feedback on their performance.

Experiential Exercises :

short, structured learning experiences where individuals learn by doing. For
instance, rather than talking about inter-personal conflicts & how to deal

experiential exercise could be used to create a conflict situation where

have to experience a conflict personally & work out its solutions.

Cases :

an in depth description of a particular problem an employee might

on the job. The employee attempts to find and analyze the problem, evaluate
alternative courses of action & decide what course of action would be most

Advantages of “Off-the –job” Methods:

Learn from specialists in that area of
work who can provide more in-depth study

Can more easily deal with groups of
workers at the same time

Employees respond better when taken away
from pressures of working


Workers may be able to obtain
qualifications or certificates

Disadvantages of “Off-the –job” Methods:

The trainer should have specialised
skills and knowledge to train

The trainer may not be given much time
to spend with the employee to teach them


The trainer may posses bad habits and
pass these on to the trainee

Development Programme:

Development is an ongoing systematic process that assesses, develops, and
enhances one’s ability to carry out top-level roles in the organization.”

is the process of equipping people with the tools, knowledge and opportunities
they need to develop themselves and become more effective. This process helps
executives to address behavior or issues that are impending their own job

Importance of Executive Development Program

Executive development is important for
the following reasons: –

Executive development programmes are
required to train and develop professional managers.

It helps managers to develop skills to
face cut throat competition.

It enables managers to face problems
related to technology and institution.

It helps in developing better relations
with the labors.

Executives need training and education
to understand and adjust to changes in socioeconomic changes.

Executive development is required to
broader the outlook of managers.

to training

methods can generally be divided into two main approaches: directive and

Directive training

directive approach involves the Trainer choosing what material to give the learners
and how to give it to them, based on the training needs, aims and objectives.



Non-directive training

In the
non-directive approach, the Trainer allows the learners to find their route
through the session, guiding them where and when necessary.

directive ones are:

and instruction





non-directive ones are:






trend in executive training and development

today’s executives, the ability to develop a successful business strategy is no
longer enough. As we emerge from the recession into an ever more
hyper-competitive business environment, the most successful organizations will
be the ones with leaders who can create a compelling vision—and who can convey
that vision to customers and employees. A wide range of executives and human
resource leaders, including presidents, senior vice presidents, chief learning
officers, and heads of executive and leadership development, reported that the
ability to create a vision— and convey it to others—is now the single most
important capability needed in the emerging generation of leaders.

skills have, for the first time in recent years, surpassed critical thinking in
importance, according to the HR leaders from more than 130 large and
medium-size organizations worldwide. But there is a problem. “The HR
leaders in the study reported that this same capability is the one most lacking
in the next generation of leadership talent, followed by the lack of
critical-thinking skills. Clearly, they are worried about the ability of the
new generation

step up into top positions. And there may be another disconnect. While the HR
leaders in the study said their top priority in the next two to three years is
developing capabilities needed to achieve vision and execute strategy, they
still tend to focus developmental efforts in other areas. “The two
developmental activities their next generation of leaders are most likely to
participate in, they said, are developmental job assignments and action
learning. However, those types of activities alone are rarely enough to give
emerging leaders the ability to create and carry out a larger vision. Many
current executives acknowledge they have not yet prepared their successors,
often because it is difficult to understand candidates with
expertise in the necessary specialties. out agreed-upon goals and strategies.
Several techniques have proved to be effective, particularly when used in
combination. Among them:

and Mentoring

organization has current and retired leaders who over the course of their
careers have articulated a strong vision—and seem to have an exceptional
ability to convey it to others. Such leaders should be recruited to be coaches
and mentors to both the current and the upcoming generation of leaders who need
to develop in this area. “These should not be typical coaching and
mentoring programs, which tend to cover a wide range of subjects, but should be
tightly focused. All those involved—executives, human resource leaders, mentors
and coaches, and those in the development program—should agree on specific
goals and meet regularly to discuss progress. Imagine Steve Jobs as a mentor,
conveying by his words and actions what it means to have a vision that can
change how people see their world. Example is a powerful teacher.


training programs should be expanded to specifically include inspiring and
engaging others. “These capabilities can be built into business scenarios
and simulations. Another proven approach is storytelling, followed by practice.
Visionary leaders— including, perhaps, the organization’s CEO—can be brought in
to talk about how they developed their own visions and how they inspired others.
Participants could then have breakout sessions, in which they are assigned to
create a vision for a product or, for example, a division or department. Case
studies of visionary leaders and organizations can supplement such training




Training and development programs play a vital role
in every organization. These programs improve Executive Performance at
workplace, it updates Executive Knowledge and enhances their personal Skills
and it helps in avoiding Managerial Obsolescence. These training programs  help the managers in succession planning,
employee retention and motivation. It creates Efficient and Effective
executives in an Organization. The need for training & development is determined
by the executive performance deficiency, computed as follows: Training &
Development need = Standard performance – Actual performance. Training enhances
the overall performance of an organization in various ways. The major areas
where employees are normally trained in an organization are Soft- skill
Development, Personality Development, Interpersonal Relationship, Problem
solving techniques, Managerial and Supervisory Training Program, quality
improvement programs, technical processes, quality circle programs, Time
management skills, employee efficiency development programs, violence
prevention programs, regulatory compliances, goal setting and implementation of
programs, workplace safety management, workplace communication, and so on.
Training enables the executives to develop their skills within the organization
and hence naturally helps to increase the organization’s market value, earning
power of the employees and job security of the employees. Training moulds the
executives attitude and helps them to achieve a better cooperation within the