James change or advancement #1Immediate impactImpact todayFuture impactPertinent policy

James MadisonWritten by: Jaytreal SmithAmerican History 2 AdvantageMrs.Julia M.. WebsterFall 2017BackgroundBirth and early childhoodEducationPersonal adult lifePolitical BackgroundEarly positionsEntry into politicsOffices heldAccomplishmentsRoad to the PresidencyCampaignsPromisesPolitical partyPresidencyElection/Campaign summaryGeneral views and beliefsImpact of Presidency terms(s)Pertinent policy change or advancement #1Immediate impactImpact todayFuture impactPertinent policy change or advancement #2Immediate impactImpact todayFuture impactPertinent policy change or advancement #3Immediate impactImpact todayFuture impactConclusionOpinion- greatest impact of the presidencyOpinion- evidence of impact today James Madison was born on March 16, 1751, in Port Conway, Virginia, to James Madison Sr. and Nellie Conway Madison. The oldest of 12 children, Madison was raised on the family plantation, Montpelier, in Orange County, Virginia. At age 18, Madison left Montpelier to attend the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University). Montpelier, James Madison’s Virginia plantation home, was established by his grandfather in 1723. An estimated 100 slaves lived at Montpelier when Madison owned it. The property was sold after this death. Today the estate, which covers some 2,600 acres, is open to the public.After graduating , James found  an interest in the American colonies and Britain, which had grow enormous over the problem of British taxes . When Virginia started preparing for the American Revolutionary War (1775-83), Madison was assigned a colonel in the Orange County .Small in stature and sickly, he soon gave up a military career for a political one. In 1776, he represented Orange County at the Virginia Constitution Convention to organize a new state government no longer under British rule.Personal adult life            Thomas Jefferson met his lifelong friend Madison while Madison worked in the Virginia legislature.Religious freedom was a political fight for James Madison. Madison was the Virginia delegate in 1783 in the year of 1783 James Madison left Congress to go back to Virginia assembly work on religious freedom to help Congress create a new constitution the state legislature and create a better system for raising federal money. Madison had a feeling the government should be set up with a system of checks and balances James thought  the government no branch had greater power over the other. james concluded that governors and judges have major roles in the government in order to help manage the state legislatures.In 1762, Madison was put in a boarding school ordered by Donald Robertson in King and Queen County, Virginia. Madison went to his father’s home in Orange County, Virginia—called Montpelier—five years after. Madison’s dad made him stay home and get a tutor because he was concerned about Madison’s health. He would go through major health problems throughout his life. After two years, Madison  went to college in 1769, enrolling at the College of New Jersey now called  Princeton University.  Madison studied Latin, Greek, science and philosophy among other subjects. He finished in 1771, madison stayed longer to continue his studies with the school president  John Witherspoon.In May 1787, delegates from each state came together at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, and Madison was able to show his ideas for a government system in his “Virginia Plan,”  a government with three branches: legislative, executive and judicial this plan would make the unfair  U.S. Constitution. Madison made  detailed notes while the  convention was going on , which helped form shape the U.S. Constitution and led to his moniker: “Father of the Constitution.” (Madison stated the Constitution was not “the offspring of a single brain,” but instead, “the work of many heads and many hangs.”)Road to presidency.In the new, more powerful Congress, Madison and Jefferson soon found themselves not agreeing  with the Federalists on key issues dealing with federal debt and power.  In 1792, Jefferson and Madison came across the Democratic-Republican Party, which has been stated as the  America’s first opposition political party. Jefferson, Madison and James Monroe (1758-1831) were the only Democratic-Republicans ever to become U.S. presidents, as the party divided into competing groups in the 1820s.Madison also new development in his personal life: In 1794, after a brief courtship, the 43-year-old Madison married 26-year-old Dolley Payne Todd (1768-1849), an outgoing Quaker widow with one son. Dolley’s personality contrasted sharply with that of the quiet, reserved Madison. She loved entertaining and hosted many receptions and dinner parties during which Madison could meet other influential figures of his time. During the couple’s 41-year marriage, they reportedly were rarely apart.Secretary of state 1801-09 Through the years, Madison’s friendship with Jefferson would continue to thrive. When Jefferson became the third president of the United States, he appointed Madison as secretary of state. In this position, which he held from 1801 to 1809, Madison helped acquire the Louisiana Territory from the French in 1803, doubling the size of America.In 1807, Madison and Jefferson enacted an embargo on all trade with Britain and France. The two European countries were at war and, angered by America’s neutrality, they had begun attacking U.S. ships at sea. However, the embargo hurt America and its merchants and sailors more than Europe, which did not need the American goods. Jefferson ended the embargo in 1809 as he left office.Campaign In line with the precedent established by Washington, Thomas Jefferson refused to stand for a third term, endorsing instead his friend Madison as his successor. Jefferson’s wish was fulfilled by a Democratic-Republican caucus in Congress, although not without some opposition. The fifty-seven-year-old Madison, along with Jefferson’s vice president, George Clinton, headed into the contest fearing the worst.Jefferson’s embargo of all trade with England and France had devastated the nation. New England states spoke openly of secession from the Union. The Federalists, convinced that they would ride the national anger to victory, renominated—without the benefit of a formal caucus—their 1804 contenders, Charles C. Pinckney of South Carolina and Rufus King of New York.Anti-Madison newspapers swung into action with stories and cartoons that ridiculed Madison’s small physical stature and the controversy associated with the embargo. “Why is the embargo like sickness?” asked one critic. “Because it weakens us.” More serious were the Federalist charges that Madison had supported the embargo to build up domestic manufactures at the expense of foreign trade. A strong contingent of anti-Madison Democratic-Republicans were convinced that Madison’s quiet demeanor sheltered a strong Hamiltonian-Federalist—one who favored a strong central government—in disguise. It took all of Jefferson’s prestige and charm to convince dissident Democratic-Republicans, who had rallied around fellow Virginian James Monroe, not to stray into the Federalist camp out of spite for Madison. Even George Clinton, who had accepted the vice presidential nomination, denounced the caucus process and announced his own candidacy for President.By the time the electoral college delegates cast their individual ballots on December 7, few political pundits harbored any doubts about the election’s ultimate outcome, though the contests in Rhode Island and New Hampshire were still shrouded in some doubt. The results announced by Congress on February 8, 1809, came as little surprise: Madison had swamped the opposition. He won 122 votes to Pinckney’s 44. The hapless Clinton garnered only six electors from his home state. Madison carried twelve states to Pinckney’s five, all of which were in the New England region. The Virginia dynasty had remained intact.Anti-Madison newspapers swung into action with stories and cartoons that ridiculed Madison’s small physical stature and the controversy associated with the embargo. “Why is the embargo like sickness?” asked one critic. “Because it weakens us.” More serious were the Federalist charges that Madison had supported the embargo to build up domestic manufactures at the expense of foreign trade. A strong contingent of anti-Madison Democratic-Republicans were convinced that Madison’s quiet demeanor sheltered a strong Hamiltonian-Federalist—one who favored a strong central government—in disguise. It took all of Jefferson’s prestige and charm to convince dissident Democratic-Republicans, who had rallied around fellow Virginian James Monroe, not to stray into the Federalist camp out of spite for Madison. Even George Clinton, who had accepted the vice presidential nomination, denounced the caucus process and announced his own candidacy for President.PresidencyMarch 4, 1809 – March 4, 1817Despite the unpopular Embargo Act of 1807, which did not make the belligerent nations change their ways but did cause a depression in the United States, Madison was elected President in 1808. Before he took office the Embargo Act was repealed.During the first year of Madison’s Administration, the United States prohibited trade with both Britain and France; then in May, 1810, Congress authorized trade with both, directing the President, if either would accept America’s view of neutral rights, to forbid trade with the other nation.Napoleon pretended to comply. Late in 1810, Madison proclaimed non-intercourse with Great Britain. In Congress a young group including Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun, the “War Hawks,” pressed the President for a more militant policy.The British impressment of American seamen and the seizure of cargoes impelled Madison to give in to the pressure. On June 1, 1812, he asked Congress to declare war.ImpactRecently, however, historians have begun to pay more attention to Madison, seeing his handling of the war as similar to Lincoln’s wartime management. Madison’s government marshaled resources, faced down secessionist threats from New England, and proved to the British the folly of fighting wars with the Americans. He established, once and for all, respect for American rights on the high seas and emerged from the war with more support than he had when he was first inaugurated in 1808. Had Madison been assassinated by a British sympathizer a week after the Battle of New Orleans or killed by the British in resisting their attack on the White House, he would have died a national hero.Also, historians note in Madison a flexibility of temperament—equaling Jefferson’s practical mood—which did not undermine his basic principles. A strong nationalist and supporter of a powerful central government as the author of the Constitution, Madison nevertheless resisted extreme centralism with his Bill of Rights, Virginia Resolution, and opposition to Hamilton. Similarly, when he became President, Madison saw the need for a national bank and supported its establishment, enlarged government powers during the war, and took a firm federal stance in the face of treason and sedition. His executive sense of priorities, in other words, always considered first and foremost the immediate demands of crisis and the national needs of the moment. In some ways—because he was on the winning side of every important issue facing the young nation from 1776 to 1816—Madison was the most successful and possibly the most influential of all the Founding Fathers.Conclusion Died6/28/1836  In retirement at Montpelier, his estate in Orange County, Virginia, Madison spoke out against the disruptive states’ rights influences that by the 1830’s threatened to shatter the Federal Union. In a note opened after his death in 1836, he stated, “The advice nearest to my heart and deepest in my convictions is that the Union of the States be cherished and perpetuated.”websites – wwww.biography.com www.whitehouse.gov,www.historynet.com,www.history.com,www.sparknotes.com,www.montpelier.org