Not only the
ordinary people and the communities but the entire world recognizes the amazon
rainforest as a server for biological services. It is the one and only rainforest
that we have left in context of size and variety. But unfortunately as forests
burn and global warming degrades the influence of amazon deforestation to continue
gradually undo the fragile ecological processes that have been refined over billions
rainforest biome gradually shrinks in size so does the richness of wild life
found in its forest along the potential use of plants and animals that stay
undiscovered. Amazon rainforest not only provides the home but also supports
the great diversity of animal species. It is projected that more than fifty
percent of the world’s ten million species live in tropical rainforest. Despite
the latter’s covering only about 7% of the land surface. The Amazon is home to
more diversity of plants and animals than any other terrestrial ecosystem on
the planet-perhaps 30%of the world species are found there.
have our governments in tropical countries under increasing pressure from
environmental groups to reign back further destruction of their forests but the
balance of commercial advantage for them is beginning to switch from clearance
and back to conservation. The idea of ‘debt-for-nature-‘ swaps was mooted
several years ago. Developing countries in debt to developed countries put a
money value on their forests as ‘ecological capital assets’. They trade
conservation of these against financial debts. A further source of income is
available from carbon emissions trading. Forests now have a money value as
carbon dioxide stores, which developed countries are able to buy as trade-off
against their own increased carbon emissions from burning fossil fuels.
The lungs of
the world (amazon rainforest) provides 20% of the earth’s oxygen and 60% of the
earth’s freshwater. On the other side it is also said to be the earth’s climate
regulator. If the amazon rainforest disappears Global Warming will be shocking.
The amazon rainforest is an unbelievable place. It helps regulating earth’s
temperature as it contribute 17% of the world’s carbon produced. The Amazon
rainforest is now catching one third less of the carbon in our atmosphere than
it did that sums to one billion tons of
carbon dioxide easily mixing in the air this increased carbon load on the
climate will grow annually hastening changes in the climate and weather
patterns. The entire forest lost over 760000 square kilometer by 2014 and by
2025 some studies have estimated that 40% of the forest will be destroyed.
protected area network throughout the amazon might be expanded and is on a
focus. Merry (Research associate professor in department of Forest Resources)
says that there is no doubt that the Amazon rainforests and people and animals
that purely depend upon it continue to be under monstrous pressure. The
communities have stronger interest since they depend on them for their
livelihood and culture. This is the reason people around the world should save
the Amazon rainforests.
biodiversity so important and worthy of protection in our country?
is rich in Pakistan, chiefly in the arid and semi-arid regions which cover
almost 80% of the total land area. Speedy human population growth is
accumulating pressure on the country’s natural resource base. A number of
animal and plant species are rare mainly due to over exploitation natural
habitat. Pakistan is participant to many international initiatives and is
making concerned efforts to conserve its biodiversity in all ecological
regions. It is planned that all investors including government agencies, NGOs
and local communities work together as allies to preserve biodiversity.
government of Pakistan is giving a thoughtful focus on how to conserve
biodiversity. The national conservation strategy (NCS) was accepted by World
Bank in 1992. There are 14 core programs many of which are soil conservation,
watershed development, and wood production and biodiversity issues. The Khyber
and Baluchistan Provincial conservation policies have been finished and
strategies for northern area is under preparation. At least two district level
conservation plans are also being introduced. These strategies deal with
biodiversity much more explicitly at the local level. In addition Biodiversity
action Plan (BAP) was accepted in 1999 and due recognition has been given to
all ecological regions of the country especially arid and semi-arid regions of
the where there is more pressure on natural resources by the natives. All the
provinces have adopted some measures against the threats and to improve
biodiversity conservation. The Sarhad Provincial Conservation Strategy (SPCS)
presents a chapter on biological diversity, parks and protected areas.
conservation of biodiversity the government of Pakistan has taken number of
actions. This includes wildlife sanctuaries, national parks and game reserves
and covers an area of 9.17 million hectares. However most of these protected areas
(Pas) was elected through legislation in the 1960s and 1970s and were too small
to be affective. Another way of promoting biodiversity conservation in Pakistan
is through the development of a 25 hectare mangrove plantation along the
Karachi coast. The area selected for this purpose is highly populated and has
become highly degraded over a period of time due to over exploitation and
neglect.as well as conserving biodiversity and creating a green belt the
plantation will also establish a barrier to protect native people from coastal disasters.
Pakistan and Barclays Bank have entered into a partnership agreement on 23rd
September 2010 with the aim to encourage the incorporation of biodiversity
conservation and social parity considerations into the business decision. There
are also multiple of NGOs working in Pakistan for the preservation of
biodiversity. These NGOs are particularly prominent in northern areas of
Pakistan where Aga Khan Rural Support Program (AKRSP) introduced community
mobilization and organization. Basic social infrastructure to develop community
based conservation programs is provided through several conservation NGOs.
Environmental Protection Agency (PEPA) is an attached agency of Ministry of
Environment under Pakistan Environmental Protection of 1997.PEPA has
responsibility of executing enforcing and regulating the protection of
environment in the country newly established organization (NBC) serves all
aspects of biodiversity. Each spring city officials across Pakistan pose for
local newspaper photographers with sapling in their hand. Foreign leaders have
been asked to lend a hand who have in return planted a tree on a hill in
Islamabad. In 2009 Pakistan took tree planting to a Guinness World Record Level
when more than half a million trees were planted during one day.
of Punjab Shahbaz Sharif says that the new forest policy is started to lift the
logging ban and limit timber harvesting to well stock forests. Ejaz Ahmad the
Deputy Director of WWF Pakistan said that the forest program was developed in
consultations with all stakeholders from minister to communities and NGOs and
was endorsed by all provinces giving it a better chance of success. Pakistan
recently won $3.8 million Readiness Fund of the Forest Carbon Partnership
Facility (FCPF) to overcome tropical deforestation.
extent can local communities minimize the effect of deforestation?
once known for its gardens and greenery all around. There were emptier and
wider streets; there were more trees and less tall buildings. In the past it
was an easy job since the water was only 35ft under the ground and could be
easily extracted but if we look today it is 200ft deep and is available in
plastic bottles. There are hardly any ring-necked parrots flying in Lahore and
fruit trees like black plum, guava and mango are decreasing. Lahore has now
transformed into concrete jungle: with thousands of development projects,
hundreds of factories injecting harmful gases which do not factor in
environmental concerns, and bridges, flyovers, brand new housing schemes and
large shopping malls are developing everywhere in Lahore.
going through a severe environmental crisis” says Hammad Naqvi Khan, the
director-general of the World Wide Fund for Nature Pakistan (WWF-Pakistan). The
crowded urban city like Lahore cannot go through very quick and maintainable
development, which put tremendous force on existing natural resources, which
results in water problems. One of the inhabitant of Lahore conveyed his
feelings on the current condition of Lahore. “He says that Lahore is now known
for its maze of underpasses and flyovers. He feels that the development
projects especially road widening has taken a clang on the city’s tree cover.
The reduction of tree cover around the canal has removed the habitat of many
species such as cats, dogs, small Indian mongoose, Indian monitor lizards,
butterflies, honey bees, fireflies, and grey hornbills, green pigeons,
ring-necked parakeets, white Kingfishers and purple sunbirds.”
more plantations, the government could easily conserve the losses of urban forests.
Trees like orange, black plum, gum berry, apple and mulberry are excellent options
because unlike other species of trees these plants are definite to thrive in
any conditions. In order to justify their unsustainable development methods, to
balance out the losses the government has argued that many trees would be
local communities of Lahore should be concerned and to combat deforestation one
can at least plant a tree. This small step can lead to fifty or more giant
leaps towards a local campaign against deforestation. Secondly, the local
communities must maximize their usage of recycled materials. Moreover, the
local ones must condemn the usage of firewood to heat up fireplaces because it
takes few hours to burn the firewood but takes years to grow a single tree. By
doing this, one could cause ample amount of positive impact on the environment.
In addition to that, the local communities must protest on governmental corruptions
corrupt governments are often paid off by illegal logging companies to ignore
their activities. Thus by protesting the corruption would reduce to much extent
which would ultimately reduce deforestation. Lastly, local people must greatly
support afforestation programs like the Green Pakistan Programme in which it
was decided to plant hundred million trees. By supporting such programs the
government would be encouraged ultimately to launch more such type of programs
thus it would be an ultimate result of reduction of deforestation in not only
local areas or cities but in entire country as well.
personal level this research has affected me in a positive way. I learnt that
ecosystem could still be boosted up as we have to just play our precious role
by managing our environment. This would not only give us positive results in
our society but greater diversity would come into form which would definitely
ensure natural sustainability for al life forms.
our precious biodiversity I would fund and distribute funding tickets to my
peers and to my family members for national parks and wildlife refuge. It would
be the best strategy to conserve biodiversity. On the other hand to combat such
problems I and my relatives would plant trees and plants in our neighborhood.
Lastly we would recycle and buy recycled products which would minimize the negative
effects on biodiversity