Strawberry sustainability. Organic manure plays a direct role in

Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) is one of the most
economically valuable vegetable crops in Egypt for local consumption and
exportation. The top strawberry producers in Egypt are Qalyubia, Ismailia,
Sharqia and Beheira governorates with a total strawberry area of about (5774.6)
hectare and yield of 40 – 47( ton/hectare) (FAO, 2014). Because of the
importance of strawberry for local consumption and export, there is a high need
for yield prediction system month/s before harvest. This system enables optimal
management for strawberry production and exportation. Studies comparing conventional
and organic production  technique and
fruits quality are often difficult to proceed, involving a large number of
factors, leading with non-decisive results (Vallverdú-Queralt;
Lamuela-Raventós, 2015). Organic farming system, which primary ,excludes the use
of synthetic pesticides and fertilizers,is becoming more and more popular
worldwide (Brandt and Molgaard, 2001). In the organic production system
Plant vegetative growth, measured as leaf number, leaf area and vegetative
biomass, was less than in the conventional system (Palomaki et al., 2002).
Strawberry plants which
grown with synthetic fertilizer had more total dry weight than strawberry
plants that grown with composted poultry litter or untreated control. Organic
growers employ cultural practices that support soil health for certification,
to increase crop quality and yields, and to improve environmental
sustainability. Organic manure plays a direct role in plant growth as a source
of all necessary macro and micronutrients in available forms during
mineralization and improves physical and chemical properties of soils
(Chaterjee et al., 2005). Abo Sedera et al. (2010) noticed
that supplying the plants with mineral fertilizers at 125% of the recommended
dose and spraying the plants with amino acids or humic acid at the high level
of them resulted in the highest TSS, vitamin C, reducing and total sugars as
well as anthocyanin concentration except total acidity which was the highest in
fruits produced from the control treatment. Shehata et al. (2011)
studied the effect of soil addition of compost and foliar fertilizer with Humic
and/or amino acids on growth and yield of strawberry cv. Festival. Despite the difficulty of obtaining conclusive results in
studies associating production systems, most research compares only single
properties (Organic vs. Conventional). The aim of this study was to compare
strawberries quality of commercial farm pairs, having organic system farm and
conventional systems farm composing each pair, previously selected in one of
the most important producing regions of Egypt. Different colored mulches
have multiple effects on the crops being grown. The optical properties of
various colored mulches can influence soil and air temperatures around the crop
as well as impact weed growth under the mulch. The use of plastic mulch in
agriculture has increased dramatically in the last decades throughout the
world. This increase is due to benefits of mulching
such as an increase in soil temperature, reduced weed pressure, moisture
conservation, reduction of certain insect pests, higher crop yields, and more
efficient use of soil nutrients (Kyrikou and Briassoulis, 2007; Kasirajan and
Ngouajio, 2012).Polyethylene mulch color is important in plant response, but
also important are the time of year and the climate in which the mulch is used,
as mulch effect on plants will be positive or negative depending on
environmental conditions. The light color that is perceived by the plant
can possibly influence the development of the plants including its
physiological characteristics. Fatemi et al., (2013) reported that the
chlorophyll content of Cucurbita pepo was increased when grown with colored
polyethylene mulch. Plastic mulch and fertilization are two vital factors for
the growth and productivity of strawberry (Abo Sedera et al., 2010a and b).
Positive significant effects of organic and synthetic mulches on vegetative
growth, flowering traits and yield and its components of strawberry plants have
been reported by several investigators (Hasanein et al 2011; Abou Elyazied and
Mady, 2012; Muhammad Haroon et al 2014). Remote sensing (RS) for crop
monitoring is a vital requirement for agricultural development locally and
globally. It has been used frequently for the assessment of the parameters
characterizing the physiological state of the plants (Sims and Gamon, 2002).
Data parameters include yield, chlorophyll content and dry biomass. RS
techniques include different tools that are based on the spectral
characteristics of plants (Zhang et al., 2010; Carter and Knapp, 2001). Changes
in the reflection spectra of the crops during the growing season are based on
plant pigments and chlorophyll content (Jorgensen et al., 2006; Maire et al.,
2004). Vegetation indices (Vis) were used to determine spectral reflectance
characteristics in different spectral regions specifically, red, near infrared
and green (Gitelson et al., 2005). They are used to estimate the chlorophyll
content (Chapelle et al., 1992; Gitelson and Merzlyak, 1997; Gitelson, 2004).
Among different (Vis) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is the most
common ones (Cabrera-Bosquetet al., 2011; Gajjar et al., 2005). The objective
of this study was to determine the effect of organic and conventional
strawberry growing systems under different treatments of fertilization, some
colors of plastic mulch such as clear, black, and silver and their interactions
on the vegetative growth, chemical content, fruit yield and chemical quality of
strawberry cv. Sweet Charlie and their effect of these treatments on spectral
reflectance characteristics. Identification of the spectral reflectance pattern
under different treatments (different colors of plastic mulches and different
fertilization treatments) was carried out and different (VIs – yield) models
were generated. It is essential for the proposed method to be applicable under
local agricultural conditions that might be different from a country to another
and sometimes are different even within the same country.