The nineteenth and twentieth centuries include Ciprian Porumbescu, Anton

The orgin of the Romanians began to be discussed at the end of the 18th century, among the scholars of the Transylvanian School .Several writers became important in the nineteenth century, including George Cosbuc, Iona Slavic, Mikhail Kalicine, Vaile Alecsandri, Nicolae Balcescu, Ion Luca Caragiale, Ion Creanga and Mihai Eminescu, the latter considered the largest and most influential Romanian poet, in detail for Luceaf?rul poetry.In the 20th century, Romanian artists achieved international fame, including Tristan Tzara, Marcel Janco,  Mircea Eliade, Nicolae Grigorescu, Marin Preda, Liviu Rebreanu,Eugène Ionesco, Emil Cioran and Constantin Brancusi. The latter has a sculptural group in Targu Jiu, while his bird sculpture in space, was auctioned in 2005 for $ 27.5 million. Elie Wiesel, a Holocaust survivor from Romania, received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1986, while writer Herta Müller received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 2009.   Also important are the Romanian painters Nicolae Grigorescu, ?tefan Luchian, Ion Andreescu Nicolae Tonitza and Theodor Aman.Roman composers of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries include Ciprian Porumbescu, Anton Pann, Eduard Caudella, Mihail Jora, Dinu Lipatti and especially George Enescu. The annual George Enescu Festival held in Bucharest in honor of the empirical composer XXX century. contemporary musicians such as Angela Gheorghiu, Gheorghe Zamfir, Inna, Alexandra Stan and many others have achieved various levels of international recognition. In the Eurovision Song Contest, Romanian singers reached third place in 2005 and 2010.   In the film, several films of the new Romanian wave have achieved international fame. At the Cannes Film Festival, 4 months, 3 weeks and 2 days of Cristian Munguia won the Palme d’Or in 2007.at the Berlin International Film Festival, posing by Calin’s child Peter Netzer won the Golden Bear gold in 2013.         history The human remains found in Pester Cu Oases (“The cave with bones”), dated about 40,000 years ago, represent the oldest known Homo sapiens in Europe.The Cumulene area of the Neolithic in north-eastern Romania was the western region of the oldest European civilization known as the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture. The first known salt pans in the world are also located in Poiana Saltine, near the village of Lunca in Romania; it was first used in the ancient Neolithic period, around 6050 BC, by the Star?evo culture and later by the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture in the pre-Cumulene period.  Evidence of this and other sites indicates that the Cucuteni-Trypillian crop extracted salt from salt-laden spring water through the briquetting process.   Before the Roman conquest of Dacia, the territories between the Danube and Dniester rivers were inhabited by different peoples of Thrace, including the Dacians and the Gets. Herodotus, in his work “Stories”, emphasizes the religious difference between the Gets and the other Thracians, however, according to Strabo, the Dacians and the Gets spoke the same language. God Cassius draws attention to the cultural similarities between the two people. There is an academic dispute that the Dacians and the Gets were the same people.   The Roman incursions under the emperor Trajan between 101-102 AD C. and 105-106 d. C. resulted in the mid-Dacian kingdom which became a province of the Roman Empire called “Dacia Felix”. Roman rule lasted 165 years. During this period, the province was completely integrated into the Roman Empire, and a considerable part of the population were new arrivals from other provinces.  The Roman settlers introduced the Latin language. According to the followers of the theory of continuity, intense Romanization gave rise to the Proto-Romanian language. The province was rich in mineral deposits (especially gold and silver in places like Alburnus Major). The Roman troops withdrew from Dacia around 271 AD. The territory was later invaded by numerous migratory peoples.      military The Romanian armed forces are constituted by the naval, terrestrial and naval forces and are directed by a commander in chief under the supervision of the Ministry of Defense and by the president as supreme commander during the war. The armed forces consist of about 15,000 civilians and 75,000 soldiers: 45,000 on land, 13,250 for air, 6,800 for naval forces and 8,800 for other camps. 171 Total defense spending in 2007 represented 2.05% of the total national GDP, or about USD 2.9 billion, with a total of $ 11 billion spent between 2006 and 2011 for modernization and acquisition of new equipment. 172 Romania has contributed with troops to the international coalition in Afghanistan since 2002, 176 with a maximum deployment of 1,600 soldiers in 2010. 177 Its combat mission in the country ended in 2014. 178 The troops Rumanians participated in the occupation of Iraq, reaching a peak of 730 soldiers before being slowly dragged 350 soldiers. Romania ended its mission in Iraq and withdrew its last troops on July 24, 2009, among the last countries to do so. The frigate Regele Ferdinand participated in the 2011 military intervention in Libya. 179   In December 2011, the Romanian Senator unanimously considered the bill that ratifies the agreement between Romania and the United States signed in September of the same year that would allow the establishment and operation of a land-based anti-missile defense system in Romania as part of NATO’s efforts. build a continental missile shield. 180