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There are various political systems around the world,
political systems that each country are governed under. The most common
political system there is, is a democracy. A democracy in a traditional sense,
is a political system that allows each individual person to participate; this
is where each citizen of a country can participate voting system where people has
the right to choose their leaders, and to hold their leaders accountable for
their policies and their conduct in office. It is the people who decide who
will represent them in parliament, and it is the people that decides who will
head the government at the national and local levels. They do this by choosing
and voting between competing parties, through regular free and fair elections;
the government is based on the consent of the governed. In a democracy, the
people are the sovereign and they are the highest form of political authority;
it is the people that holds the power to the leaders of government, who only
hold power temporarily as every term there are elections and a new head gets
elected. It is in a democracy that laws and policies require majority support
in parliament before being made and enacted; this means that once a law is put forward
for consideration it cannot be enacted if not enough people agree with it. It
is only when a new law or policy has undergone through a voting system in the
parliament, would that law be passed, and so will be judged if it’s a just and
fair. Based on the Democracy Index, almost one half of all the countries in the
world are considered as a democracy a democracy, with some of the having a hybrid
or flawed version of democracy but a democracy nonetheless (The Economist,
2016).

Another type of political system is a Monarchy and it is
the most common form of governance starting from the ancient times, to early
parts of the 20th century; where the country is ruled over by a
hereditary king or hereditary queen. When people hear the word monarchy, most
people will think of the political systems of medieval European nations.
Monarchies are where rulers are not usually chosen by the voice of the public
or people, or by their representatives. A monarch is often the head of the
state until she or he abdicates their throne, or until their eventual death. In
a surmountable of cases, a monarch is and always is the final word in the
government; the king or the queen of that nation’s monarch always has the final
say when it comes to governance of the nation, and can enact laws or policies
given by them. There might also be functionaries in order to make decisions and
be able to run the political system, but the monarch will always have the
discretion when it comes with the laws, and how they are enforced. There are different
types of monarchies, same as with other political systems. The most common type
of monarchy that a lot of people know is the absolute monarchy, where the
monarch has the ultimate say when it comes to the matters of the government;
the king or queen that is currently on the throne has all the power, and has
all the capability under their fingers. However, most monarchies in the modern
political systems does not follow this method of system anymore. Constitutional
monarchies are now the most common of monarchies where in this type of monarchy
the ruler is the head of state, but there is a constitution that limits the
power, and it is others and not the monarch that creates the laws; examples of
this is the UK, Denmark, Spain, and Sweden where the monarchs are nearly all
just symbolic rather than actual rulers of their countries, and governing power
is now in the hands of the national parliaments. There are currently around 40
monarchies in the world right now such as Spain, Sweden, the United Arab Emirates,
Malaysia, the United Kingdom, and Japan. Although the monarchs in these
countries are just figureheads and just largely symbolic, these countries are
still considered current monarchies (RoyaltyMonarchy, 2018).

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Another common political system is a Republic and theoretically
speaking, a republic is a political system where the government remains mostly
subject to those who are being governed. Most people define any political
systems where the citizens legitimize the government, such as the US, a country
which people would consider a republic. A lot of people believe that any form
of governance where the ruler of a country is not based on heritage, or
authoritarian governance is a republic. Sometimes, a representative democracy
might be considered or thought off as a republic. The main or basic
characteristic of a republic is that the government is subject to the people it
governs, and where the leaders can be recalled; the state is ruled by
representatives of the citizen body. The idea that the sovereignty lies and
rests with the people, though who is included and excluded from the category of
the people has varied across history. A republic is then very similar to a
democracy, where no one person has all the power under their fingers, but is a
sort of collective; the government head is elected through a voting system and
would only be in power for a couple of years, 10 years in office, and would be
replaced by a newly elected head. Most of the countries in the world are considered
republics, examples of sovereign states are Colombia, Mozambique, and
Philippines, and the United States of America (Ranker, 2018).

On the other side of the coin of a republic is a
political system that is wholly opposite and it Communism. This is a political
system where the all the property is public, and the government owns and
controls practically everything; the government owns and controls the
manufacturing, production, rates of exchange, transportation, means of
distribution of property, and various industries of the country. A society
where all property is held in common and which in theory is classless. The word
can also refer to the policies of various states controlled by communist
political parties, although they may differ greatly from the hypothetical model
posited by philosophers such as Marx. This is a system where people share
equally from the benefits of their labour, and they receive resources they need
from the government. Communism is supposed to make everyone under communist
control equal, having no difference between the rich and the poor. Communist
states are often dominated by a group of people or by a single party. A planned
economy is often part of the governing class, and in many cases resources are
taken and then redistributed to others, at the top of the system. Sometimes,
communists call themselves as workers’ states, or socialists, but there are
very real differences in their operation. In most cases, citizens are required
to do certain jobs, or have some of their life decisions; concerning where they
can live, or what jobs they can do dictated by the state itself. Currently,
there are only 5 communist countries that remains in the world; China (People’s
Republic of China, Cuba (Republic of Cuba), Laos (Lao People’s Democratic
Republic), North Korea (Democratic People’s Republic of Korea), and Vietnam
(Socialist Republic of Vietnam) (ThoughtCo, 2017).

Similarly, another political system where the people
does not have any power of say is a political system called a dictatorship.
This political system is an authoritarian form of government, and the dictator
is the main individual ruler of the country. There might be other associates,
and those who work under the dictator, but it is solely the dictator himself or
herself that can make most of the decisions, and usually also has people to
enforce decisions such as laws or policies that he or she chooses. Sometimes,
the dictatorship political system is run by a small group of people, and
dictators are not restricted by constitutions or parliaments. The people that
are under dictatorships are usually not consented in any way or form. When
there is an election, it is usually affairs in which the dictator is the only
candidate. As of today, according to the PlanetRulers website, there are 49
dictatorships currently in the world; 21 in Africa, 18 in Asia, 7 in the Middle
East, 1 in Europe, and 2 in the Americas (PlanetRulers, 2017).