We do all kinds of things to get ahead

We live in the world of competition, and
people do all kinds of things to get ahead of all just like geniuses. However, according
to Gorvertt (2017), one of the geniuses’ secret is having a habit of sleep
until the Rapid Eye Movement cycle of sleep (REM sleep) reach. In the study, it
is mentioned that Albert Einstein had a habit of 10 hours of sleep per day that
is nearly one and half times as much as the average American today which is 6.8
hours; Nicola Tesla who is pioneered of electrical engineering, inventor and
eccentric legend; Leonardo Da Vinci, the painter of Mona Lisa; Benjamin
Franklin,  who is famous in America
because of his discoveries and theories regarding electricity; Virginia Woolf,
the pioneer in the use of stream of consciousness as a narrative device;  Lastly, Thomas Edison who is the inventor of
electric light bulb and phonograph. They are the notable geniuses who had sleep
habit and often experienced Rapid Eye Movement (REM sleep). Leonard (2017)
characterized the Rapid Eye Movement or commonly known as REM sleep or REMS as a
vivid dreams with having low muscle tone throughout the body and random
movement of eyes, that happens after the Non-REM sleep. Non Rapid Eye Movement,
also known as Non-REM sleep or NREMS is the sleep stage 1 to 3 but previously
known as stages 1 to 4, that is characterized as the period of sleep which the
metabolism decreases, absence of dreaming, and slows the breathing and the
heart rate. It is said that REM sleep is one of the important to achieve in the
cycle of sleep. Does it really important?

            The REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep
is very important part in our sleep pattern, because it has many benefits that
keeps the health of our mental and physical. In the article of Sleeping Habits
(n.d) it is mentioned that REM sleep keeps the good restoration that is
controlled by our circadian clock that tells us when we are going to sleep and
when we are going to wake up, it also stimulates the areas of our brain that is
essential in learning and making or retaining our memories, and to improve our
procedural memory or the ability to know how to do things and to have always
make space for new data. REM stage of sleep cycle is the time when our brain
areas become more active and the reason of having a dream, which is the result
of the data that are being absorbed, analyzed and filled away. According to
inboundMed (2017) REM sleep gives an refreshment  to a person that produces good moods,  it also affect how the person can be able to
read the emotions of others accurately and process external stimuli. However,
when there is an adequate amount of REM sleep may be at higher risk for
Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinsonism, depression, anxiety disorders and other
serious mental illnesses, and they are more likely experience daytime
sleepiness and wake up with the feeling of unrefreshed. REM sleep prior to
fearful experiences may also make a person less prone to developing
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) because according to Itamar Lerner cited
from the article of Macmillan (2017) that the part of the brain which is
associated to the stress that affects the amygdala the fear center of the brain
during wakefulness and non-REM sleep takes a break during REM sleep. According
to the researchers from the Rutgers University, they suggests that the person’s
quality of sleep before the traumatic situation may affect that brain on how it
will relate and react to the scary situation, because the more we experience
the REM stage of sleep there is less possibility that we relate to the effect
of  the scary situations. REM sleep also
contributes to the weight of the person, because base on the studies that those
children and teens who spend less time in REM sleep may be more likely to become
overweight. One of the study shows that the obesity rate in the past 30 years
has more tripled among children aged 6 to 11 years; but nowadays, adolescence
have the higher rate of being overweight or obese because of the imbalance of
the calorie intake in the body, changes in the endocrine and energy expenditure
from physical activity. In short, sleeping habits until to the stage of REM
sleep may also be the answer to the prayers of those who suffer obesity to
lessen their weight and become healthier.

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             Sleeping is very relaxing moment in our daily
life from our daily works, sometimes we felt being relaxed when we woke up and
fulfilled the maximum level of sleep even though it’s just only 2 hours,
however, before the stage of REM sleep which really gives the refreshment after
sleeping has three distinct phases that we need to experience. Macmillan (2017)
mentioned that according to the psychologist REM sleep stages are shortly
happens during the first two-thirds of the night where the body make it more
deeper that only happens during the final hours of sleep, and it cannot be
fulfilled when the full seven or eight hours of sleep in the bed will cut off
or disturbed. There are two types of sleep, and that is the rapid eye movement
or REM sleep and the non-REM sleep which has the three different stages that we
can experience. In the first stage, our heartbeat, breathing and eye movements
will get slow, our muscles will be relax with occasionally twitches and the
brain waves become slow, but in this stage the person may still awake easily for
about five to ten minutes. The second stage, our heartbeat and breathing still
slow and the muscles relax even further, the body temperature will drops and
the eye movement will stop. The third stage, is the period of sleep where the
breathing will become slow to their lowest levels during sleep, the brain waves
become even slower, the muscles are relaxed and it may be difficult to awaken.
Lastly, is the REM stage of sleep, it is first occurs about 90 minutes after
falling asleep. The eyes moves rapidly from side to side behind the closed
eyelids; the breathing becomes faster and irregular; the heart rate and blood
pressure increase to near waking levels; the leg muscles and arm become
temporarily paralyzed which helps to prevent from reacting the content of the
vivid dreams. She also mentioned that according to Walker, during the REM sleep
there are more activity inside the brain especially to the visual, motor,
emotional and autobiographical memory regions of the brain, but there is also a
decreased activity in other regions of the brain liked the one involve in
rational thoughts. Walker also stated that the only thing that we can remember
when we woke up are only  the part of the
REM sleep but in reality the brain is highly active throughout the entire phase
and stages. In a meanwhile, Naiman describes the REM sleep as a sort of a
“second gut” that digest all information that we gathered, our every conversation,
everything that we saw, is chewed on and swallowed and filtered through while
we dream, and either excreted or assimilated. But why does the eye really moves
behind the eyelids during REM sleep? According the researchers from UCLA in the
year of 2015, the cause of the eye movements is that the brain may be switching
to different kinds of mental imagery that we can see in our dreams during the
REM sleep stage. Another thing why reaching the REM stage of sleep is really
important because based on the study by the article from inboundMed (2017) that
during the uninterrupted REM sleep our brain have time to do the deep cleaning for
the removing of  the neurotoxins that
enters in our body such as the waste products of something called beta-amyloid,
which is usually found in people who had Alzheimer’s disease. Meaning, REM sleep
helps our brain to sweep out all our toxic proteins in our body.

             It is shown that having a REM sleep is very
important stage to reach while sleeping, even those famous geniuses had a habit
of reaching this stage of sleep because of its benefits to our physical and
mental health, however, Macmilan (2017) mentioned that Walker do not believe
that REM sleep have benefits, because according to him there is wide evidence
shows that the slow-wave or non-REM sleep have more benefits than the REM
sleep, including the regulation of blood flow and blood glucose levels and
clearing the Alzheimer’s-related plaque from the brain. Actually when we enter
the REM sleep there is possible that we can get the disorder which is called
the RBD or rapid eye movement sleep disorder. The inboundMed (2017) described
the RBD as a neurological based sleep disorder which is characterized by
intense physical activity, because the signals in the brain that usually
generate muscular paralysis are not blocked by a “gateway” in the brainstem,
which the dreamers can, and do, act out their dream contents. This kind of
sleep disorder are really dangerous which is not just like sleepwalking,
because it can not only harm the person engaged in the acting out of their
dreams, but to anyone else around them during the RBD happens. We knew that
when were sleep, our dreams only exist in our minds while our body rests, but
according to Sheehan (2010) for people with Rapid Eye Movement Behavior
Disorder, dreaming is much more than mental but physical and sometimes violent
event, because they may punch, grab, talk, kick, yell, or leap out of bed and
sometimes they harm themselves or their bed partner. This kind of sleep
disorder are rarely to happen, however according to the studies it is most
associated to elderly males, which is 90 percent of those with REM behavior disorder
are men and usually over age 50, but nowadays more women are being diagnosed
with the disorder, especially under age 50, and young adults and children can
develop the disorder, usually in association with narcolepsy which is a chronic
sleep disorder that is characterized by overwhelming daytime drowsiness;
antidepressant use or brain tumors; having a certain type of neurodegenerative
disorder such as Parkinson’s disease, multiple system atrophy, stroke or
dementia with Lewy bodies; taking certain medication, especially newer
antidepressants, or the use or withdrawal of drugs or alcohol; several
environmental personal risk factors including occupational pesticide exposure,
farming, smoking or previous head injury. RBD is sometimes mistakenly as sleepwalking
and night terrors, but they are different. According to the research people who
experienced sleepwalking  and  night terrors are usually confused and
feeling groggy upon waking and don’t become rapidly alert, while those people
who suffer in REM behavior disorder or RBD they can rarely walk or leave their
room, they are easily awoken and they can remember the vivid details of their

Eye Movement or REM sleep is the stage of the sleep cycle which happens after
the non-REM sleep that is essential in learning, restoration, helps us to have
new space for new data, produces a fresh and good mood, helps to predict and
understand the emotions of others and it also helps to prevent the Alzheimer
disease, parkinsonism, depression, anxiety disorder, PTSD and also the obesity.
Nevertheless, even though there are many studies suggests that REM sleep is
very important to reach in sleep cycle and it helps in many ways for the mental
and physical health, there are studies still shows that REM sleep have negative
effects and may give RBD or rapid eye movement behavior disorder that is the
form of sleep disorder which the muscular paralysis are not blocked by a
“gateway” in the brainstem that allows the dreamer to act the content of the
dreams. This is rarely to be happen but it’s really dangerous not only for the
person who suffer this kind of disorder but also the people around the dreamer.
However, it can be still well managed with proper diagnosis and treatment.
Therefore, to become mental and physically healthy, we need to manage also our
everyday habits before the time of sleep, because what we did in our wakeful
time can also affect the activities inside our mind and body while sleeping
especially the REM sleep stage that may help us to be healthy but may also harm
us when it’s not manage well.